Legal Basis Patents Act 1970 effective 20 April 1972

Patents (Amendment) Act 1999 effective 1 January 1995

Patents (Amendment) Act 2002 effective 20 May 2003

Patents (Amendment) Act 2005 effective 1 January 2005

Patents Rules 1972 effective 20 April 1972

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2003 effective 20 May 2003

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2005 effective 1 January 2005

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2006 effective 5 May 2006

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2006 effective 16 July 2012

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2013 effective 23 April 2013

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2014 effective 28 February 2014

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2016 effective 16 May 2016

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2017 effective 1 December 2017

Patents (Amendment) Rules 2019 effective 17 September 2019

Major international treaties signed
  • World Trade Organization effective 01 January 1995
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty effective 7 December 1998
  • Paris Convention effective 7 December 1998
  • Budapest Treaty effective 17 December 2001
  • Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
Costs of obtaining a patent Please contact us at
Average time to obtain a patent 2 to 3 years from filing in India
Official language for patent prosecution English or Hindi
Non-patentable subject matter
  • Frivolous or contrary to well established natural laws
  • Invention against public order or morality or which causes serious prejudice to human, annimal or plant life or health or to the environment
  • Discovery of a scientific principle or formulation of an abstract theory
  • Discovery of new form of a known substance which does not result in enhancement of any efficacy, any new property or new use for a known substance or mere new use of a known process, machine or apparatus
  • Substance obtained by mere admixture
  • Mere arrangement or re-arrangement or duplication of known devices
  • Method of agriculture or horticulture
  • Process for medicinal, surgical, curative, prophylactic, diagnostic, therapeutic or other treatment of human beings or animals
  • Plants and animals in whole or any part thereof other than micro-organisms
  • A computer program per se, other than its technical application to industry
  • A mathematical method or business method, algorithms
  • A literary, dramatic, musical or artistic work or any other aesthetic creation
  • Scheme or rule or method of performing mental act or method of playing game
  • Topography of integrated circuits
  • Traditional knowledge
  • A presentation of information
  • Invention relating to atomic energy and inventions prejudicial to the interest of security of India.
Grace period for prior disclosure or sale Public disclosure: First application not later than 12 months after the first disclosure

Public working (use): Prior working in India, 12 months before the priority date

Major prosecution events
National Phase Entry : 31 months from the date of priority
Request for Examination : 48 months from the date of priority
Putting in order for grant : 6 months from date of issuance of First Examination Report to comply with any objections of the report.

A further extension of time of 3 months is available.

Renewals of patents : Every year starting from the third year
Filing and prosecution procedures Stage 1: Filing
Stage 2: Publication & Pre-Grant Opposition (if any)
Stage 3: Examination
Stage 4: Grant
Stage 5: Post-Grant Opposition (if any)
Stage 6: Renewal/ Annuity
Extension of office action deadlines 3 months
Necessary document for filing A copy of PCT publication or Specification (in English or Hindi)
Verified English translation of PCT publication / specification (if applicable)
Power of Attorney (Form 26)
Assignment/Inventor(s) Executed Form1 (may be submitted later)
PCT IB304 or Certified copy of priority document (may be submitted later)
Verified English translation of priority document (if applicable, may be submitted later)
Pharmaceutical Data Exclusivity Laws Not available
Search and Examination Indian patent office conducts Substantive Examination on its own
Opposition term Pre-Grant: After publication of the application and any time before the grant of patent
Post-Grant: One year from the date of publication of grant
Term of patent protection 20 years
Patent term extension Not available
Restoration of lapsed patent Within 18 months from the date of lapse
Parallel Imports Available
Other forms of patents (e.g. Petty/innovation patents) Patents of Addition
Useful links
Infringement offence Available
Specialized courts for IP Not available. However, Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB) is available to hear appeal against decision made by the Intellectual Property Office.
Outline of the enforcement steps Notice of Cease and Desist
Infringement lawsuit
Relief against groundless threats Available
Declaration of non-infringement Available
Preliminary injunctions Available
Time frame for various legal actions Revocation – 1 to 2 years
Infringement proceeding – 2 to 3 years
Alternative Dispute Resolution Arbitration
Availability of damages and other relief for infringement Injunction
Account of profits
Seizure, forfeiture or destruction of goods found to be infringing without payment of compensation
Civil Remedies As per above
Criminal Sanctions Not available